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LI Xiang,SU Jie,ZHAO Jinping. 2014. An evaluation of the simulations of the Arctic Intermediate Water in climate models and reanalyses. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 33(12):1-14
An evaluation of the simulations of the Arctic Intermediate Water in climate models and reanalyses
气候模式和再分析数据中北冰洋中层水再现能力的评估
Received:March 28, 2014  Revised:June 19, 2014
DOI:10.1007/s13131-014-0567-6
Key words:Arctic Intermediate Water  model evaluation  Arctic modeling  impact of data assimilation
中文关键词:  
基金项目:The National Basic Research Program (973 Program) of China under contract No. 2013CBA01805; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41330960; the Plan 111 of Ocean University of China under contract B07036.
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
LI Xiang Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Wave, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China 
 
SU Jie Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China sujie@ouc.edu.cn 
ZHAO Jinping Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China  
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Abstract:
      The simulations of the Arctic Intermediate Water in four datasets of climate models and reanalyses, CCSM3, CCSM4, SODA and GLORYS, are analyzed and evaluated. The climatological core temperatures and depths in both CCSM models exhibit deviations over 0.5℃ and 200 m from the PHC. SODA reanalysis reproduces relatively reasonable spatial patterns of core temperature and depth, while GLORYS, another reanalysis, shows a remarkable cooling and deepening drift compared with the result at the beginning of the dataset especially in the Eurasian Basin (about 2℃). The heat contents at the depth of intermediate water in the CCSM models are overestimated with large positive errors nearly twice of that in the PHC. To the contrary, the GLORYS in 2009 show a negative error with a similar magnitude, which means the characteristic of the water mass is totally lost. The circulations in the two reanalyses at the depth of intermediate water are more energetic and realistic than those in the CCSMs, which is attributed to the horizontal eddy-permitting resolution. The velocity fields and the transports in the Fram Strait are also investigated. The necessity of finer horizontal resolution is concluded again. The northward volume transports are much larger in the two reanalyses, although they are still weak comparing with mooring observations. Finally, an investigation of the impact of assimilation is done with an evidence of the heat input from assimilation. It is thought to be a reason for the good performance in the SODA, while the GLORYS drifts dramatically without assimilation data in the Arctic Ocean.
中文摘要:
      本文分析评估了CCSM3、CCSM4气候模式和SODA和GLORYS两个再分析数据对北冰洋中层水的表现。两个CCSM模式气候态结果的北冰洋中层水核心温度较PHC整体偏高约0.5℃,中层水核心深度也存在200米的偏差。SODA是四套数据中空间分布最好的,再现了相对合理的核心温度、深度和热含量的空间分布。而另一套再分析数据GLORYS则在17年的运行过程中存在显著的模式漂移,特别是欧亚海盆东部的北冰洋中层水核心温度在17年中降低了约2℃。与PHC数据相比,CCSM模式的北冰洋中层水热含量高估了几乎2倍。相反的,GLORYS在数据的最后年份表现出相同量级的低估,意味着该结果中北冰洋中层水高温的特性不复存在。从中层流场上看,相对于粗网格的CCSM模式结果,涡分辨率的再分析数据模拟出相对复杂且合理的北极环极边界流。此外,本文还分析了弗拉姆海峡横断面的温度、流速与通量,并再次指出高水平分辨率对模拟中层水的必要性。在两个再分析数据中,向北的体积通量虽然与锚定浮标实测资料相比仍较弱,但比CCSM模式的结果强很多,且结构更合理。最后,通过分析相邻两月的核心温度大面场,证明同化数据是SODA数据北冰洋中层水良好的再现能力的原因之一,暗示了这些再分析数据所依赖的大洋环流模式对北冰洋中层水模拟能力上的不足。同时这也解释了两套再分析数据之间的差异,因为SODA具有北冰洋的同化数据,而GLORYS没有。
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