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李立,吴日升,郭小钢.南海的季节环流─TOPEX/POSEIDON卫星测高应用研究[J].海洋学报,2000,22(6):13-26
南海的季节环流─TOPEX/POSEIDON卫星测高应用研究
Seasonal circulation in the South China Sea-a TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimetry study
投稿时间:1999-11-25  修订日期:2000-05-08
DOI:
中文关键词:  南海环流  卫星高度计  季风  黑潮
英文关键词:South China Sea circulation  satellite altimeter  monsoon  Kurashio
基金项目:“国家重点基础研究发展规划”G19990438项目;“国家科委攀登A计划”南海季风试验项目;国家自然科学基金重点资助项目(编号:49630045);和国家海洋局的资助
作者单位
李立 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 厦门 361005
海洋环境科学和数值模拟国家海洋局重点实验室, 青岛 266061 
吴日升 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 厦门 361005 
郭小钢 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 厦门 361005 
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中文摘要:
      应用1992~1996年的TOPEX/POSEIDON卫星高度计遥感资料,研究了冬、夏季风强盛期多年平均的南海上层环流结构。研究结果表明,南海上层流结构呈明显的季节变化,在很大程度上受该海区冬、夏交替的季风支配。冬季总环流呈气旋型,并发育有两个次海盆尺度气旋型环流;夏季总环流大致呈反气旋型、但在南海东部18°N以南海域未见明显流系发育。研究还表明,南海环流的西向强化趋势明显,论冬、夏在中南半岛沿岸和巽他陆架外缘均存在急流,其流向冬、夏相反,是南海上层环流中最强劲的一支。鉴于该海流的动力特征与海洋动力学中定义的漂流不同,有相当大的地转成分,建议称为“南海季风急流(South China Sea MonsoonJet)”.冬季南下的季风急流在南海南部受巽他陆架阻挡折向东北,沿加里曼丹岛和巴拉望岛外海有较强东北向流发育。夏季北上的季风急流在海南岛东南分为两支:北支沿陆架北上,似为传统意义上的南海暖流;南支沿18°N向东横穿南海后折向东北;二者之间(陆架坡折附近)为弱流区。两分支在汕头外海汇合后,南海暖流流速增强。就多年平均而言,黑潮只在冬季侵入南海东北部,并在南海北部诱生一个次海盆尺度的气旋型环流,这时南海暖流只出现在汕头以东海域.夏季南海北部完全受东北向流控制,未见黑潮入侵迹象.用卫星跟踪海面漂流浮标观测进行的对比验证表明,以上遥感分析结果与海上观测一致。
英文摘要:
      The mean seasonal circulation in upper layer of the South China Sea (SCS) is studied using TOPEX/PnSE1DON altimetrv remnte sensing products from 1992 to 1996.The research results reveal that upper layer circulation in the SCS is predominated by seasonal alternating monsoons and its pattern varies seasonally.The winter general circulation appears to be cyclone consisted of two sub-basin cyclonic gyres.The summer circulation is generally anticyclonic,but no systematic current structure is found in the eastern SCS south of 18°N.The results also indicate that circulation in the SCS is notably westen intensified.A jet is observed,in both winter and summer,off the coast of Vietnam and the outer edge of Sunda shelf.It appears to be the strongest current in the SCS,which flows southword in winter,but northward in summer.Since the dynamic feature of this jet is mainly geostrophic rather than wind drifting,it is suggested that name it as a jet (the SCS Monsoon Jet) instead of a drift.In winter,the Sunda shelf blocks the southward flowing jet and a northeastward return current is developed along coasts of Kalimantan and Palawan Ialands.In summer,the northward flowing jet splits off the southeast coast of Hainan Island.The northern branch flows along the China shelf,consisting with the traditional path of the SCS Warm Current.The southern branch flows to the east along 18°N across the basin,turns to northeast,and joints the northern branch again off Shantou.The SCS Warm Current is strengthened there by reunification and a zone of weak flow is observed near the shelf break between these branches.In the sense of multiyear mean,the Kuroshio intrudes into the northeastern SCS only in winter and induces a sub-basin cyclonic gyre in the northern SCS.At this period,the SCS Warm Current only exists in the area east of Shantou.In summer,the predominated current in the northern SCS is northeastward.There is no indication of Kuroshio invasion there.Validation using observations from satellite tracking surface drifting buoy shows that these remote sensing results are in good agreement with surface observation.
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