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杨建斌,姚鹏,张晓华.南海北部神狐海域营养盐浓度与结构的分布特征及影响因素[J].海洋学报,2020,42(10):132-143
南海北部神狐海域营养盐浓度与结构的分布特征及影响因素
The distribution and controlling factors of the concentration and structure of dissolved inorganic nutrients in the Shenhu Area, northern South China Sea
投稿时间:2020-01-17  修订日期:2020-07-02
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.0253-4193.2020.10.013
中文关键词:  神狐海域  营养盐  浓度  结构  影响因素
英文关键词:Shenhu Area  nutrients  concentration  structure  controlling factors
基金项目:中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20160221)。
作者单位E-mail
杨建斌 中国海洋大学 海洋化学理论与工程技术教育部重点实验室山东 青岛 266100  
姚鹏 中国海洋大学 海洋化学理论与工程技术教育部重点实验室山东 青岛 266100
青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室山东 青岛 266237 
yaopeng@ouc.edu.cn 
张晓华 青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室山东 青岛 266237
中国海洋大学 海洋生命学院山东 青岛 266003 
 
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中文摘要:
      生源要素是海洋初级生产的基础,其在海洋环境中的循环受到多种物理、化学和生物过程的影响,对其浓度分布、结构特点及影响因素的认识是理解海洋生态系统动力学的基础。于2019年2月在南海北部神狐海域进行了现场考察和海水样品采集,对海水中的溶解态无机营养盐浓度进行了分析,并结合温度、盐度、叶绿素a(Chl a)、pH和溶解氧(DO)等水文环境参数,研究了神狐海域海水中营养盐浓度与结构的分布特征及影响因素等。在0~30 m的海水中各营养盐浓度均很低,随着深度的增加,营养盐浓度逐渐增大。在水深3 000 m左右处,无机氮、磷酸盐和硅酸盐浓度分别达到了38.02 μmol/L、2.71 μmol/L和149.07 μmol/L。温度、pH和DO与各营养盐浓度均具有显著的相关性,表明环境因素影响着营养盐的生物地球化学过程。此外,在75 m深度,研究区域东北方向的站位营养盐浓度相对较低,并呈现向西南方向逐渐增大的变化趋势,可能与高温、高盐和低营养盐的黑潮水入侵有关。根据端元混合模型计算所得保守混合浓度与实测值的差值显示,在75 m深度硅酸盐和磷酸盐以生物消耗为主,而硝酸盐存在添加。随磷酸盐浓度增加,各站位无机氮浓度呈线性升高,但硅酸盐浓度则以幂函数式升高,表明不同营养盐之间再生速率和再利用效率有所不同。神狐海域的N/P比与Si/N比和Si/P比呈现出截然相反的变化趋势。在0~30 m,N/P比较小而Si/N比和Si/P比较大;在75 m,受不同生物作用影响,N/P比变大,Si/N比和Si/P比变小;在75 m以下N/P比逐渐降低至14.44,而Si/N比和Si/P比则逐渐升高;在1 000 m以下,各营养盐比例均保持稳定。氮异常指数的计算结果显示,神狐海域300 m以上的海水中固氮作用强于反硝化作用,而300 m以下反硝化作用增强。神狐海域营养盐浓度与结构的分布特征表明黑潮入侵和生物活动显著影响了此区域营养盐的生物地球化学过程。
英文摘要:
      Biogenic elements are the basis of primary production in marine systems. Their cycles in marine environments are affected by various physical, chemical, and biological processes. Understanding the concentration distribution, structural characteristics, and influencing factors of biogenic elements are essential to understand the dynamics of marine ecosystems. In February 2019, a field investigation was conducted in the Shenhu Area of the northern South China Sea and seawater samples were collected to analyze dissolved inorganic nutrients. Combined with the hydrological environment parameters, such as temperature, salinity, chlrophyll a (Chl a), pH and dissolved oxygen (DO), the distribution and controlling factor of nutrient concentration and structure in the Shenhu Area were discussed. Concentrations of each nutrient in the seawaters from 0 m to 30 m were very low, and the nutrient concentrations gradually increased with the increase of depth. At the depth of about 3 000 m, the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate and silicate reached 38.02 μmol/L, 2.71 μmol/L and 149.07 μmol/L, respectively. Temperature, pH and DO were significantly correlated with nutrients, indicating that environmental factors greatly affected the biogeochemical processes of nutrients. In addition, the concentration of nutrients in the northeast direction of the study area at a depth of 75 m was relatively low and showed a gradual increasing trend in the southwest direction, which may be related to the intrusion of Kuroshio water with high temperature, high salinity and low nutrients. Meanwhile, the difference between the conservative mixing concentrations calculated based on an end-member mixing model and the measured values of nutrients showed that, at 75 m depth, silicate and phosphate were consumed by biological activities, while nitrates were controlled by biological addition. With the increase of phosphate, the DIN at each site increased linearly, but the silicate increased with a power function, indicating that the regeneration rate and recycling efficiency were different for different nutrients. The ratios of N/P in the Shenhu Area showed opposite trends compared with the ratios of Si/N and Si/P. At 0-30 m, the N/P ratios were low and the Si/N and Si/P ratios were high. At 75 m, the N/P ratios increased along with the decrease of Si/N and Si/P ratios possibly because of different biological effects. Below 75 m, the N/P ratios gradually decreased to 14.44, while the Si/N and Si/P ratios gradually increased. All nutrient ratios remained stable below 1 000 m. The calculation results of the N-anomaly showed that nitrogen fixation in seawater above 300 m was stronger than denitrification, and denitrification below 300 m was enhanced. The distribution characteristics of the concentration and structure of nutrients in the Shenhu Area indicated that the Kuroshio intrusion and biological activities significantly affected the biogeochemical process of nutrients in this area.
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