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刘保华,丁忠军,史先鹏,于凯本,李德威,李宝钢.载人潜水器在深海科学考察中的应用研究进展[J].海洋学报,2015,37(10):1-10
载人潜水器在深海科学考察中的应用研究进展
Progress of the application and research of manned submersibles used in deep sea scientific investigations
投稿时间:2015-06-26  修订日期:2015-08-12
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.0253-4193.2015.10.001
中文关键词:  载人潜水器  深海  科学考察  地质科学  生物科学  物理海洋
英文关键词:manned submersibles  deep sea  scientific investigation  geosciences  biological sciences  physical oceanography
基金项目:科技部国际科技合作项目(2012DFA20970)。
作者单位
刘保华 国家深海基地管理中心, 山东 青岛 266061 
丁忠军 国家深海基地管理中心, 山东 青岛 266061 
史先鹏 国家深海基地管理中心, 山东 青岛 266061 
于凯本 国家深海基地管理中心, 山东 青岛 266061 
李德威 国家深海基地管理中心, 山东 青岛 266061 
李宝钢 国家深海基地管理中心, 山东 青岛 266061 
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中文摘要:
      载人深潜技术是深海技术的前沿与制高点,也是深海科考最先进的技术手段之一。20世纪60年代以来,随着高新技术的发展,美国、法国、俄罗斯、日本等国在载人潜水器的研制和应用上取得了快速的发展,先后掌握了大深度载人深潜技术,具备了在复杂海况下进行水下作业的能力,实现了对深海和大洋洋底的现场观察、探测和取样等。目前,深海载人潜水器的考察范围已经遍及全球大陆坡深水区、洋中脊、海山、海沟和洋盆等海底区域,获得了大量的深海地质、地球物理、生物、化学和环境方面的信息或样品,取得了一批重大的发现和创新性的研究成果,推动了深海科学的发展。我国自主集成研制的"蛟龙"号载人潜水器顺利完成了7 000 m级海试,并于2013年开始开展了试验性应用,取得了丰硕的科考成果。本文简要介绍了世界载人潜水器的发展现状及其在深海科学考察中的技术优势,综述了国内外载人潜水器在深海地质学、生物学和物理海洋学等领域中的应用情况。
英文摘要:
      Deep submergence technology is the cutting edge and one of the most advanced deep-sea technologies. With the development of high technology since 1960s,countries such as America,Japan,France and Russia have made a rapid progress in the development and application of manned submersibles; they have mastered this technology successively and are capable of applying it to the in situ observation,detection and sampling at complex deep ocean conditions. To date,the vehicles have been applied to obtain deep-sea geological,geophysical,biological,chemical and environmental information at areas including continental slopes,mid-ocean ridges,seamounts,sea-floor trenches and ocean basins all over the world,based on which,a batch of important findings and innovative results have been achieved and thus improving the deep sea research. China self-designed Jiaolong manned submersible has successfully completed 7 000 m class sea trial. The test operational phase has been conducted since 2013,and rich scientific investigations have been achieved via the successful voyages. This paper briefly describes the current status of the development of manned submersibles of each country and their advantages in deep ocean research,and reviews the application in marine geology,biology and physical oceanography of manned submersibles developed by domestic and foreign countries.
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