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李春花,李明,赵杰臣,张林,田忠翔.近年北极东北和西北航道开通状况分析[J].海洋学报,2014,36(10):33-47
近年北极东北和西北航道开通状况分析
Navigable status analysis of Arctic Northeast and Northwest Passage in recent years
投稿时间:2014-03-06  修订日期:2014-06-15
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.0253-4193.2014.10.004
中文关键词:  北极  海冰  航道
英文关键词:Arctic  sea ice  navigable
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41376188,41206184);海洋公益性行业科研专项(201205007);极地考察专项(CHINARE-03-01);国家海洋局极地对外合作项目(IC201211)。
作者单位
李春花 国家海洋环境预报中心 国家海洋局海洋灾害预报技术研究重点实验室, 北京 100081 
李明 国家海洋环境预报中心 国家海洋局海洋灾害预报技术研究重点实验室, 北京 100081 
赵杰臣 国家海洋环境预报中心 国家海洋局海洋灾害预报技术研究重点实验室, 北京 100081 
张林 国家海洋环境预报中心 国家海洋局海洋灾害预报技术研究重点实验室, 北京 100081 
田忠翔 国家海洋环境预报中心 国家海洋局海洋灾害预报技术研究重点实验室, 北京 100081 
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中文摘要:
      利用微波卫星遥感数据对北极东北航道和西北航道近年来的冰情变化,以及影响航道开通的关键区域和每年的开通状况进行了分析和总结,并对航道未来的可能冰情状况进行了展望,期望对航道利用者有所帮助。东北航道全线开通期主要集中在8月下旬至10月上旬,开通总天数多在40~50 d;西北航道南线开通期主要集中在8月上中旬至10月上旬,开通总天数多在50~60 d;西北航道北线开通时间主要集中在9月。东北航道冰情最为复杂的是连接拉普捷夫海和喀拉海的北地群岛区域海冰,也是影响航道开通的关键区。影响西北航道南线开通的关键主要是威廉王岛附近维多利亚海峡、威尔士王子岛东侧的皮尔海峡和北侧巴罗海峡区域的海冰状况;影响北线开通的关键区域是班克斯岛西北部的麦克卢尔海峡和梅尔维尔子爵海峡;东北航道可通航性优于西北航道。虽然气候变化大背景下北极海冰总量减少,但由于海冰流动性增强,局部海冰变化愈发复杂,海冰分布年际差异较大,需要加强北极海冰监测和预报能力,为未来航道利用提供保障。
英文摘要:
      Using microwave satellite remote sensing data,the sea ice conditions in key regions of Arctic Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage in recent summers were analyzed and the navigable status from 2002 to 2013 were summarized. The navigable period of Northeast Passage was mainly in late August to early October,and navigable windows was 40 to 50 days; South line of Northwest Passage was free to navigate mainly in early-middle August to early October,and about 50 to 60 days; North line of Northwest Passage was navigable mainly in September. For the Northeast Passage,the ice condition in Severnaya Zemlya,which connecting the Kara Sea and Laptev Sea,was the most complex,which was the key region determining North Passage navigable or not. The key regions affecting South line of Northwest Passage navigation were King William Island near Victoria Strait,North Peel Channel and Barrow Strait; and the key regions affecting North line of Northwest Passage were Northwest Banks Island,McClure Strait and Melville Sound. Arctic Northeast Passage is easier for navigation compared with the Northwest Passage. Sea ice extent in Arctic was reducing but the ice kinetic ability was enhanced due to sea ice thickness thinner and friable,which induced the sea ice complexity in local area. The capacity of sea ice monitoring and forecasting should be strengthened for the safety of Arctic navigation.
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